Saturday, October 23, 2010

Replacing COD with TOC

A new study published by Donata Dubber of the Water Technology Research Group.

Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is widely used for wastewater monitoring, design, modelling and plant operational analysis. However this method results in the production of hazardous wastes including mercury and hexavalent chromium. The study examined the replacement of COD with total organic carbon (TOC) for general performance monitoring by comparing their relationship with influent and effluent samples from 11 wastewater treatment plants. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) was also included in the comparison as a control. The results show significant linear relationships between TOC, COD and BOD5 in settled (influent) domestic and municipal wastewaters, but only between COD and TOC in treated effluents. The study concludes that TOC can be reliably used for the generic replacement of both COD (COD = 49.2 + 3.00*TOC) and BOD5 (BOD5 = 23.7 + 1.68*TOC) in influent wastewaters but only for COD (COD = 7.25 + 2.99*TOC) in final effluents.

Dubber, D. and Gray, N.F. (2010) Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A, 45, (12), 1595-1600.

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  8. A total organic carbon analyzer (also referred to as TOC analyzers) measures the amount of total organic carbon present in a liquid or water sample. TOC detection is important because of the effects that TOCs may have on health, not to mention the environmental effects and implications for the pharmaceutical manufacturing processes.

    For more details visit us:
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    ReplyDelete
  9. Total organic carbon (TOC) indirectly measures the total amount of organic substances present in water for pharmaceutical use. The molecules of organic matter in water are oxidised to produce carbon dioxide which is then measured in an instrument and from the result, the concentration of carbon in the water is calculated. The determination of carbon in water may be made either on-line (in the line of supply of the water) or offline

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  12. Glove box systems are designed to physically contain a sample, specimen or product while still allowing someone to work with that material. In terms of hazardous or infectious agents, glove boxes protect the user; however, glove boxes can be used to protect the sample as well. Built-in arm-length gloves are used to access and manipulate the sample within the sealed container.

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  17. Total organic carbon (TOC) indirectly measures the total amount of organic substances present in water for pharmaceutical use. The molecules of organic matter in water are oxidised to produce carbon dioxide which is then measured in an instrument and from the result, the concentration of carbon in the water is calculated. The determination of carbon in water may be made either on-line (in the line of supply of the water) or offline

    For more details visit our site:
    http://www.deekshainstruments.com/environmental.html

    ReplyDelete
  18. Gloveboxes are used to prevent contact between potentially hazardous materials with the outside environment or operating personnel. Some of these materials or processes may be sensitive to ambient environment and hence need to be worked with under isolated conditions.


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